Amazing discovery of alien life on Mars

American scientists determined that alien life may have existed on Mars. Scientists at Rutgers University, USA have found on Mars places where alien life might once existed, when liquid water was still there.

The research is published in the journal Science Advances. Even though Mars has a dense atmosphere with high levels of carbon dioxide and water vapor, the climate above is still not sufficiently humid and warm, according to the researchers.

However, life can exist underground, aided by the warmth emitted by geothermal energy sources. Climate patterns suggest that 3.7 - 4.1 billion years ago, the surface temperature on Mars barely reached minus 0.15 degrees Celsius. The idea is that the planet's interior is warm enough for groundwater to exist in liquid form. The impact of the meteor has provided more heat to the planet. According to the scientists' conclusions, groundwater reservoirs could be suitable habitats for living organisms and possibly still exist somewhere below the planet's surface. Lead author Lujendra Ojha, of Rutgers-New Brunswick University in New Jersey, said: “At such a depth, life can be sustained by hydrothermal (heating) and rock-water reactions.

The subsurface layer may be the longest living habitat on Mars. Over time, our sun has gradually brightened and warmed the surface of the planets in the solar system. About 4 billion years ago, the sun was much fainter, so the early Mars climate should have froze. But the surface of the Red Planet has many geological indicators, such as ancient riverbeds and chemical indicators, indicating that it had abundant liquid water during the Noachian period (around 3.7-4, 1 billion years ago). Ojha and his team believe that geothermal heating, similar to what is found on earth, may explain this paradox. On rocky planets like Mars, Earth, Venus and Mercury, thermogenic elements like uranium, thorium and potassium generate heat through radioactive decay. That means liquid water could be created through melting at the bottom of thick ice sheets, even if the sun was dimmer than it is now. On Earth, geothermal heat forms subglacial lakes in the West Antarctic, Greenland and Arctic ice regions of Canada. It seems that the same melting could help explain the presence of liquid water on the cold, frozen Mars 4 billion years ago. Scientists have examined various Mars data sets and have shown that the conditions required for sub-surface melting were ubiquitous on ancient Mars.